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armenia earthquake 1988 cause

While on site during aftershock monitoring, the US research team verified the presence of soil amplification effects when pronounced difference in readings were observed when compared with nearby rock sites. Earthquake in Spitak in 1988 More than twenty-six years ago (December 7, 1988)Armenia was shocked by the strongest earthquake in the city of Spitak, which was completely destroyed in half an hour, and along with it, 58 surrounding villages. The shocks at the southeastern segment indicated right-lateral strike-slipmovement along a nearly vertical fault, and may have been related to the Alavar fault. Many case histories pertaining to liquefaction in sandy soil exist, but few exist with respect to gravel and gravelly sands. During the time of the earthquake, others believed that the destruction was a result of an underground nuclear explosion. Chrysler chairman Lee Iacocca arranged for a fund drive, and in Chicago (one of five major Armenian population centers in the US) the community raised $800,000 and donated 20,000 pounds of supplies. Conclusions regarding the liquefaction vulnerability of gravelly sands, drawn from field observations and analyses of the data from 3 sites (two liquefaction, and one no-liquefaction) are presented. This may be explained by a 300–400 m (980–1,310 ft) sedimentary layer that is present beneath the city. Yuri S. Mkhitarian, an Armenian State Building Committee official, gave an updated damage report that included some of the outlying communities away from the population centers stating that 342 villages were damaged and another 58 were destroyed. Washington immediately responded with offers of doctors, medical equipment, and rescue teams, and by the first weekend the first US plane arrived in Yerevan with search and rescue teams and detection dogs. The earthquake The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ, Spitaki yerkrasharj), occurred on December 7 at 11:41 local time with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating). [9], A team of earthquake and engineering experts from the United States spent a period of time in Armenia in December 1988 and January 1989. Gorbachev, in a TV interview several weeks after his expedited return from New York City, said that the concrete blocks had been built with more than enough sand but too little concrete, and suggested that the concrete had been stolen. Activity in the area is associated with tectonic plate boundary interaction and the source of the event was a slip of a thrust fault just to the north of Spitak. The Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant, around 75 kilometers (47 mi) from the epicenter, experienced only minor shaking and no damage occurred there, but was eventually closed for a period of six years due to vulnerability concerns. The mainshock produced surface rupture and propagated to the west with a separate strike-slip sub-event occurring two seconds later that propagated to the southeast. Author and professor of geopolitics Pierre Verluise detailed in his 1995 book Armenia in Crisis: The 1988 Earthquake, how a French doctor and director of a Leninakan hospital described that he had seen one hundred victims suffering from the syndrome each day during the first three days. A song was produced by a duo of French composers (including Charles Aznavour) and a studio album that featured songs donated by mainstream rock bands was released from the Rock Aid Armeniaeffort by the British music industry. It is still considered very unusual. One hundred and thirteen countries sent substantial amounts of humanitarian aid to the Soviet Union in the form of rescue equipment, search teams and medical supplies, but private donations and assistance from non-governmental organizations also had a large part of the international effort. A second air transport incident occurred the following day at Yerevan (capital of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic) when an Antonov An-12 from Yugoslavia crashed, killing all seven crew on board. Long Term Mortality and Morbidity Related to Degree of Damage Following the 1988 Earthquake in Armenia January 1999 American Journal of Epidemiology 148(11):1077-84 Change ). The engineers who scrutinized the damaged buildings and the rescue workers who had dismantled the buildings while extricating survivors ascribe both design shortcomings and improper construction methods for the failure of the buildings. [39], As of July 1989 about $500 million in donations had been delivered to the Armenians from 113 countries. The first site was on the highway that linked the three most damaged cities and was adjacent to a tributary of the Pambak river where the water table was close to the surface. This paper describes case histories of liquefaction-induced embankment failures from the 1988 Armenia earthquake. Gorbachev set aside 5 billion rubles (about US$8 billion) in funds for a start on what would likely be a recovery cost that would exceed the cleanup bill for the 1986 nuclear and radiation accident in Ukraine. Several investigations of that event took place in the 1980s and early 1990s and the primary conclusions were that a critical condition for liquefaction to occur in that type of soil was the presence of a low permeable crust that did not allow pore water pressures to subside and that the assessment method and associated standard penetration test values used with sandy soils also applied to gravelly soils. [32], A second air transport incident occurred the following day at Yerevan (capital of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic) when an Antonov An-12 from Yugoslavia crashed, killing all seven crew on board. In order to prevent kidney failure or death, the treatment requires prompt hospitalization, and according to the doctor, the victims were not receiving adequate medication and dialysis and, as a result, most died before the arrival of the first foreign dialysis machines were accessible. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Most of those funds went into the initial relief work and medical care plus the beginning portion of the rebuilding phase. Eight of the selected sites were equipped with a vertical component velocity transducer along with an FM telemetry link to transfer data back to a central station where a three-component unit was stationed. We need foreign assistance–and there is no doubt about that–but our friends do not know the local conditions and propose things that cannot or should not be built in an earthquake-prone region.” The effects of local geology and soil conditions upon the earthquake‐induced damage were analyzed and reported by the writers in other publications in the ASCE Geotechnical Journal. On Dec 7 1988 a devastating earthquake hit the Soviet republic of Armenia, killing around 25,000 people. War, natural disasters, interpersonal violence, and other causes of trauma continue to plague our world. Aznavour, together with Armenian-French composer Georges Garvarentz, formed a foundation called "Aznavour for Armenia" and composed the song as a call for help for the Armenians. The first well-documented case of liquefaction in gravelly sands was in regard to the 1983 Borah Peak earthquake in the United States. [14] It was reopened in 1995 amid criticism of lack of training, political instability in the Caucasus region, and accusations that the plant was of inadequate design. Many buildings did not hold up to the shaking of the earthquake and those that did collapse often lacked any survival space, but lack of effective medical care and poor planning also contributed to the substantial scope of the disaster. [24][25], The area where Armenia lies is of interest to seismologists and geologists because of the relatively early stage of continental collision occurring there and because the earthquake's strong aftershock sequence and significant surface faulting presented scientists with an environment to study reverse faulting. As a result, the region has been plagued by sever earthquakes for thousands of years: an earthquake in 893 A.D. took an estimated 20,000 lives; another in 1667 took 80,000 lives. The seismicity along this belt is marked by frequent major earthquakes from the Aegean Sea, through Turkey and Iran, and into Afghanistan. 1988 Armenian earthquake. Many buildings across the region sustained heavy damage or collapsed. Activity in the area is associated with tectonic plate boundary interaction and the source of the event was slip on a thrust fault just to the north of Spitak. It took six weeks from the creation of the song to completion of the disc and with almost two million copies sold, the foundation was able to build 47 schools and three orphanages for the victims of the disaster. Today marks 32nd anniversary since 1988 earthquake in Armenia. In support of the relief effort, recording artists united to produce several music-related contributions for the victims of the quake. A team of earthquake and engineering experts from the United States spent a period of time in Armenia in December 1988 and January 1989. Boris Karapetyan, director of earthquake studies at the Yerevan Polytechnical Institute, said of the difficult rebuilding process “Coordination is a major, major problem. This paper examines the … Earthquake All the principal determinants of damage in earthquakes converged to magnify the dread­ ful outcomes of the Armenian earthquake (Ta­ ble 1). Earthquake In Armenia 1988 by ArmenianEducation. Yuri S. Mkhitarian, an Armenian State Building Committee official, gave an updated damage report that included some of the outlying communities away from the population centers stating that 342 villages were damaged and another 58 were destroyed. [23], In late December the last of the survivors that were able to be extricated were pulled from the fallen buildings, rescue operations ceased, and the cleanup began, beginning with the destruction of buildings that were too heavily damaged to be repaired. ", "Deaths and Injuries due to the Earthquake in Armenia – A Cohort Approach", "Lessons and questions emerge from Armenian quake", "Armenia's Metsamor NPP, Built Near Fault Line, Gets 10 Year Life Extension", "Armenia's Nuclear Risk; Antiquated Power Station to Be Reopened Despite Wide Concerns About Safety", "USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Facts and Statistics Graphs", "Earthquake Hazards Program: Largest and Deadliest Earthquakes by Year", "All the deadliest and strongest earthquakes since 1900, including coordinates", "6 Found Alive in Armenia 35 Days After Quake", "Fake News, Soviet-Style: The Armenian Earthquake Rescue That Was Too Good To Be True", "Russia 'Concerned' About Armenian Protests Of Foreign-Language Schools", "Soviet Relief Plane Crashes, Killing 78", "Yugoslav Pilots Blamed in Crash of Quake Relief Plane", "Story of Charles Aznavour's "For you Armenia, "Soviet Union: When the Earth Shook – A killer quake devastates Armenia, and the West responds with unprecedented aid", "Faucets, Not Hospitals : Armenia Aid Gets Back to the Basics", "In Armenia, Revival the American Way; U.S. Architects Plan an Earthquake-Resistant Spitak", "Out of Earthquake's Rubble Rises Soviet-U.S. Teamwork", "The Spitak (Armenia) earthquake of 7 December 1988: field observations, seismology and tectonics", "Geometry, segmentation and stress regime of the Spitak (Armenia) earthquake from the analysis of the aftershock sequence", "Earthquake of 7 December 1988, Spitak, Armenia report of the NZNSEE team visit of 1989", Earthquake Damage, the Armenian SSR, December 7, 1988, On this day – 1988: Death toll rises in Armenian earthquake, Rescue efforts underway after earthquake strikes the Soviet republic of Armenia. Beginning with late 1987 the Caucasus region was experiencing a surge in political turmoil with large and near constant demonstrations being held in the capital of Yerevan beginning in February 1988. Nine crew and 69 military personnel were on board the plane that struck a helicopter in foggy conditions at the small airport that was overrun with rescue flights. Aftershocks At the Yerevan airport, western pilots reported a breakdown in air traffic control communications, with flight controllers not delivering the necessary flight navigation instructions, allowing for a critical lack of separation as foreign planes made their way into the area. Gorbachev was asleep in a New York hotel when the quake hit. On the east end the events were shallow while the western side, where the majority of the larger aftershocks were concentrated, the hypocenters were up to 14 km (8.7 mi) deep. American businessman and philanthropist Armand Hammer, well known to the Soviet Union for his financial pursuits and humanitarian ties, left Los Angeles for Armenia on board a Boeing 727 loaded with 2,300 pounds of medical supplies that were provided by theAmerican Red Cross. Despite the tensions of the Cold War, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev formally asked the United States for humanitarian help within a few days of the earthquake, the first such request since World War II. [26], The epicenters of the recorded aftershocks formed a relatively narrow 50 km (31 mi) band. Private donations and assistance from non-governmental organizations also had a large part of the international effort. Seismologists thoroughly studied the effects of the Spitak event, including the mainshock and aftershock fault rupture mechanisms and were on site setting up temporary seismometers before the end of 1988. The earthquake occurred at 11:41 AM when most people were indoors. The structural damage caused by the Armenian earthquake of 1988 to a just completed hospital in the model city of Stepanavan, Armenia. The total number of volunteer rescue personnel in Leninakan totalled 2,000, with teams from Austria, Canada, Switzerland, the United States, Poland and Yugoslavia. [37], Red tape inevitably held up some of the rescue efforts and criticism of the perceived flawed processes soon followed. ( Log Out /  Aznavour, together with Armenian-French composer Georges Garvarentz, formed a foundation called “Aznavour for Armenia” and composed the song as a call for help for the Armenians. As a result, ... Goenjian and colleagues have been conducting ongoing research among survivors of the devastating 1988 6.9 earthquake in Armenia. The flight also carried Robert Seiple (president of World Vision) and a UCLA doctor who had worked in the aftermath of the 1985 Mexico City earthquake. Both Leninakan and Kirovakan were roughly equidistant from the shock, yet Leninakan had greater damage. Waveform modeling established that the faulting originated at a depth of 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) with the epicenter on the Alavar thrust fault on the slopes of the Lesser Caucasusmountains north of Mount Aragats. Note the fragile wall composition built without a supporting frame. There the seismic signals were digitized, along with an internal time signal and an external DCF77 time signal, and stored on magnetic tape. [11][13], The source of the event was a fault rupture 40 kilometers (25 mi) south of the Caucasus Mountains, a mountain range that has been produced by the convergence of the Arabian and the Eurasian tectonic plates. The Soviets had modified their construction style to accommodate the known seismic risk in the area, but they acknowledged to the team that many of the buildings were not built to withstand an earthquake of that magnitude. The complex incident ruptured multiple faults, with a strike-slip event occurring shortly after the initiation of the mainshock. Eight of the selected sites were equipped with a vertical component velocity transducer along with an FM telemetry link to transfer data back to a central station where a three-component unit was stationed. Noji,2 &A.P. Nine crew and 69 military personnel were on board the plane that struck a helicopter in foggy conditions at the small airport that was overrun with rescue flights. Gorbachev, in a TV interview several weeks after his expedited return from New York City, said that the concrete blocks had been built with more than enough sand but too little concrete, and suggested that the concrete had been stolen. The earthquake’s effects were assessed at ten on that seismic scale. The French arrived in Armenia in the late evening on Friday, December 9 and relieved the exhausted Armenian workers who then returned to Yerevan. Some say that this earthquake was caused by an atmoic bomb test done in the Arctic ocean by Soviet Union. The cost of rebuilding would be a severe obstacle for Perestroika, Gorbachev’s plan for economic restructuring. The shock occurred in the northern region of Armenia (then part of the Soviet Union) which is vulnerable to large and destructive earthquakes and is part of a larger active seismic belt that stretches from the Alps to the Himalayas. The team then set out to determine an accurate velocity model using data from the more accurate telemetry network. Better epidemiological knowledge of the causes of death and the type of injuries and illnesses caused by earthquakes is … The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute's team compared building damage in each city and observed similar results when comparing stone buildings four stories or less in height, but for taller frame-stone buildings, 62% were destroyed at Leninakan while only 23% collapsed at Kirovakan. The epicenters of the recorded aftershocks formed a relatively narrow 50 km (31 mi) band. Health ministerYevgeniy Chazov urged the creation of a governmental body to assist with disaster management. Bruce Bolt, a seismologist and a professor of earth and planetary science at the University of California, Berkeley, walked the length of the fault scarp in 1992 and found that the vertical displacement measured 1 m (3.3 ft) along most of the length with the southwest end reaching 1.6 m (5.2 ft). Health minister Yevgeniy Chazov urged the creation of a governmental body to assist with disaster management. While that shock may have been related to the Pambak-Sevan fault, the October 22, 1926 Leninakan earthquake to the west of the 1988 event also had a maximum intensity of MSK VIII. Six friends were in the basement of a nine-story building relocating barrels when it came down around them on December 7. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. This may be explained by a 300–400 m (980–1,310 ft) sedimentary layerthat is present beneath the city. The Spitak Earthquake also called Gyumri Earthquake was a tremor with a moment magnitude of 7.2 , that took place on December 7, 1988 at 11:41 local time (07:41 UTC) in the Spitak region of Armenia, then part of the Soviet Union. Leninakan earthquake in the Armenian region of Spitak 1988 by DiFilm. Going westward the fault split into two branches, a north-dipping reverse fault (north branch) and a right slip fault (south branch), but neither produced surface rupture. Many case histories pertaining toliquefaction in sandy soil exist, but few exist with respect to gravel and gravelly sands. , but foreign help would be required to build six additional facilities. Armenia es un pequeño país transcontinental ubicado en la región del Cáucaso, entre Europa oriental y Asia occidental; que en la actualidad apenas posee una población de tres millones de habitantes. A major earthquake devastated the Armenian Republic of the Soviet Union on December 7, 1988, resulting in thousands of deaths and injuries. The message reads: “Dear residents of Gyumri, Spitak, Vanadzor and Stepanavan, Dear compatriots, Today is the day of remembering the victims of the 1988 earthquake. [15], The three cities closest to the fault rupture experienced different levels of damage. The Soviet's grid plan road scheme was found to not take into account the hillside at the new city's location, and the American plan included finer details of how commercial centers and government facilities were grouped together in an open and communal style. Approximately two hundred aftershocks were recorded each day for the first several days of the expedition and at the end of the recording period in February the equipment was still picking up around 100 shocks per day. 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Oganesian3 the studyattempts to identifypredictors ofinjuries amongpersons who were hospitalized following the Armenian earthquake at... Facebook account earthquake Memorial at the southeastern segment indicated right-lateral strike-slipmovement along a nearly vertical,... M ( 980–1,310 ft ) sedimentary layer that is present beneath the city people were searching. Produced surface rupture and propagated to the Alavar fault for a critique of their,. Fill in your details below or click an icon to Log in: are... Since it poses an environmental threat in these challenging times of Armenia nine-story! Killed while on a relief mission to Leninakan when a Soviet Ilyushin Il-76 crashed on approach the. In damage an active seismic belt that stretches from the more accurate telemetry network opposition movement began September! Towns and villages of the relief effort, recording artists United to several. 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Using data from the United States were also severely affected team then set out to determine an accurate velocity using! Collapse of the plant, since it poses an environmental threat is still. Their plan, the American proposal was ultimately accepted as the way forward 7th 1988 an measuring. A governmental body to assist with disaster management 25,000 and 50,000 were killed while on a relief to... Hit Armenia activity in the United States spent a period of time in Armenia an. Assist with disaster management strike-slipmovement along a nearly vertical fault, and foreign involvement is both necessary... Fluctuation in damage in certain situations gravelly sands may liquefy in similar fashion as saturated sands, few! Greater damage governmental body to assist with disaster management beneath the city reports from the Aegean Sea through! Presidential Office told Armenpress build six additional facilities different levels of damage traumatic consequences what follows is a massive,! Organizations also had a large part of the recorded aftershocks formed a relatively narrow 50 km ( mi! Year we commemorate our thousands of compatriots, [ … ] the earthquake occurred 11:41... Sands was in regard to the fluctuation in damage and assistance from non-governmental organizations also had a large of! Six digital recorders built by the Armenian earthquake of 7 December 1988 a devastating earthquake in the United spent. For rebuilding the town of Spitak this year we commemorate our thousands of deaths and injuries and! Segment indicated right-lateral strike-slipmovement along a nearly vertical fault, and foreign involvement is both a and. Right to despair even in these challenging times shortly after the initiation of the strongest, this the... The Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg were also significant the airport there saturated! Of damage several kilometers to the airport there flawed processes soon followed Il-76 crashed on approach the... Built without a supporting frame ( Europe-Asia ) plate in your details below click... Separate outlines for rebuilding the town would be a severe obstacle for Perestroika Gorbachev! International organizations, and into Afghanistan earthquake ’ s Yerevan — Russian General ’ Yerevan... Have been conducting ongoing research among survivors of the Soviet republic of the mainshock produced surface rupture and to. Shock, yet Leninakan had greater damage [ 15 ], the side! Disaster management Physique du Globe de Strasbourg were also severely affected what follows is passage... Was about 50 miles, which covered a densely populated region of.. But hope is waning in Armenia is unique in some ways on finding any survivors, but exist. Strasbourg were also significant Pravda complained that the lack of cranes meant that `` seconds and are...

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